Although 22 other inventors are mentioned as perhaps inventing a light bulb, the most widely known inventor is, of course, Thomas Edison. If he didn't actually invent the light bulb, he at least invented the first stable light bulb that was economically viable.
Many light bulbs are indicated as having an "Edison Base". Since Thomas Edison popularized the light bulb, it was his model of the screw in base that we all know as the "standard base" or medium base" that has also taken the name of "Edison Base". Sometimes it is just abbreviated and referred to as an "E" style base. The most common screw in base for light bulbs is the E26 (or Medium) Base. The number "26" simply signifies the number of millimeters in diameter of the base itself.
These base types can be attached to a variety of light bulbs, including popular incandescent Edison Base light bulbs like the A19, A21, Flood, Spot, Tubular (T10), Halogen Floods, etc... many of the new compact fluorescent light bulbs are also utilizing the Edison Base as it has become to most common household screw-in receptable.
So, whether you call it the Edison Base, Medium Base, Standard Base, or E26 Base, it is all the same thing. :)